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杨荫凯:东北应尽快摆脱计划经济惯性思维

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年09月19日 21:09:37
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(  10月)(17日)(,由)(东)(北)(大)(学)(和)(中)(国)((海)(南)()改)(革)(发)(展)(研)(究)(院)(共)(同)(发)(起)(,与)(沈)(阳)(、长)(春)(、哈)(尔)(滨)(、大)(连)(四)(市)(政)(府)(联)(合)(主)(办)(的)(“经)(济)(新)(常)(态)(下)(的)(东)(北)(振)(兴)(论)(坛)(”在)(沈)(阳)(举)(行)(。该)(论)(坛)(旨)(在)(搭)(建)(政)(学)(研)(商)(界)(经)(济)(新)(常)(态)(下)(共)(谋)(东)(北)(振)(兴)(、助)(推)(东)(北)(老)(工)(业)(基)(地)(转)(型)(升)(级)(的)(重)(要)(平)(台)(。来)(自)(国)(家)(相)(关)(部)(委)(的)(官)(员)(、国)(家)(级)(智)(库)(的)(专)(家)(学)(者)(、地)(方)(官)(员)(和)(企)(业)(界)(人)(士)(参)(加)(了)(本)(次)(论)(坛)(。国)(家)(发)(改)(委)(东)(北)(振)(兴)(司)(副)(司)(长)(杨)(荫)(凯)(做)(了)(主)(题)(发)(言)(。
  杨)(荫)(凯)(:首)(先)(,非)(常)(感)(谢)(论)(坛)(对)(我)(司)(的)(邀)(请)(,也)(是)(利)(用)(这)(个)(时)(间)(,我)(想)(着)(重)(谈)(这)(么)(两)(个)(问)(题)(。第)(一)(个)(问)(题)(,当)(前)(东)(北)(经)(济)(形)(势)(确)(实)(错)(综)(复)(杂)(,振)(兴)(工)(作)(面)(临)(着)(千)(难)(万)(难)(的)(重)(要)(挑)(战)(。想)(探)(讨)(一)(下)(到)(底)(如)(何)(去)(看)(待)(当)(前)(东)(北)(存)(在)(的)(问)(题)(;第)(二)(个)(问)(题)(,探)(讨)(一)(下)(如)(何)(破)(解)(当)(前)(东)(北)(存)(在)(这)(些)(特)(殊)(的)(困)(难)(。
  一)(、东)(北)(振)(兴)(战)(略)(实)(施)(的)(成)(绩)(不)(容)(忽)(视)(。当)(然)(,当)(前)(存)(在)(的)(突)(出)(问)(题)(更)(需)(要)(冷)(静)(的)(去)(辨)(析)(。2003年)(之)(后)(,中)(央)(确)(定)(东)(北)(老)(工)(业)(基)(地)(振)(兴)(战)(略)(,应)(该)(说)(取)(得)(的)(成)(绩)(是)(众)(所)(周)(知)(的)(,我)(只)(有)(两)(个)(数)(字)(:第)(一)(个)(,2003年)(到)(2012年)(,东)(北)(地)(区)(生)(产)(总)(值)(翻)(了)(两)(番)(多)(,年)(均)(增)(速)(12.7%;第)(二)(个)(,2003年)(,东)(北)(三)(省)(人)(均)(GDP不)(足)(3000美)(元)(,到)(2014年)(,东)(北)(地)(区)(的)(这)(个)(指)(标)(已)(经)(超)(过)(了)(8000美)(元)(。成)(绩)(是)(毋)(庸)(置)(疑)(的)(。但)(是)(,目)(前)(,尤)(其)(是)(2013年)(之)(后)(,受)(周)(期)(性)(、结)(构)(性)(矛)(盾)(问)(题)(的)(影)(响)(,东)(北)(出)(现)(了)(一)(系)(列)(的)(问)(题)(,这)(些)(问)(题)(也)(是)(大)(家)(众)(所)(周)(知)(的)(,我)(这)(里)(同)(样)(也)(是)(提)(供)(这)(么)(两)(个)(数)(字)(:第)(一)(个)(,今)(年)(上)(半)(年)(辽)(吉)(黑)(三)(省)(的)(GDP增)(速)(分)(别)(是)(2.6%、6.1%和)(5.1%,这)(三)(个)(省)(都)(在)(全)(国)(所)(有)(的)(省)(区)(市)(里)(倒)(数)(五)(位)(,其)(中)(辽)(宁)(垫)(底)(;第)(二)(个)(,我)(们)(对)(于)(当)(前)(,前)(三)(季)(度)(涉)(及)(到)(东)(北)(的)(主)(要)(经)(济)(指)(标)(做)(了)(一)(个)(初)(步)(分)(析)(,因)(为)(有)(的)(指)(标)(还)(没)(有)(出)(来)(,从)(我)(们)(的)(判)(断)(,总)(的)(来)(看)(,就)(是)(经)(济)(增)(速)(有)(望)(小)(幅)(回)(升)(,进)(一)(步)(下)(滑)(的)(可)(能)(性)(不)(大)(。但)(是)(,经)(济)(形)(势)(仍)(不)(容)(乐)(观)(,持)(续)(向)(好)(的)(基)(础)(现)(在)(并)(不)(稳)(固)(。所)(以)(,这)(个)(是)(目)(前)(东)(北)(问)(题)(的)(一)(个)(基)(本)(表)(现)(。那)(么)(,如)(何)(全)(面)(客)(观)(辩)(证)(的)(用)(发)(展)(的)(眼)(光)(来)(看)(待)(当)(前)(存)(在)(的)(突)(出)(问)(题)(,我)(个)(人)(认)(为)(,起)(码)(有)(这)(么)(三)(个)(层)(面)(:
  第)(一)(个)(层)(面)(,从)(问)(题)(的)(性)(质)(来)(看)(。目)(前)(的)(问)(题)(和)(十)(年)(前)(那)(种)(大)(量)(企)(业)(职)(工)(下)(岗)(、大)(量)(企)(业)(关)(闭)(、社)(会)(民)(生)(凋)(敝)(的)(情)(况)(相)(比)(,目)(前)(的)(问)(题)(,更)(多)(是)(体)(现)(在)(经)(济)(层)(面)(,是)(发)(展)(的)(问)(题)(,目)(前)(的)(问)(题)(和)(十)(年)(前)(的)(问)(题)(是)(有)(本)(质)(的)(区)(别)(,但)(是)(当)(前)(的)(问)(题)(,如)(果)(你)(不)(采)(取)(适)(当)(的)(方)(式)(加)(以)(尽)(快)(解)(决)(,有)(可)(能)(衍)(生)(传)(导)(到)(就)(业)(或)(者)(其)(他)(民)(生)(领)(域)(,可)(能)(会)(损)(及)(当)(前)(东)(北)(持)(续)(稳)(定)(的)(局)(面)(,也)(有)(可)(能)(损)(及)(十)(年)(振)(兴)(的)(成)(果)(。
  第)(二)(个)(层)(面)(,从)(问)(题)(的)(根)(源)(来)(看)(,目)(前)(这)(些)(问)(题)(既)(有)(和)(其)(他)(省)(一)(样)(的)(,是)(进)(入)(新)(常)(态)(之)(后)(的)(速)(度)(变)(化)(、结)(构)(转)(化)(、动)(力)(转)(化)(等)(一)(系)(列)(的)(普)(遍)(问)(题)(和)(矛)(盾)(,同)(时)(又)(具)(备)(东)(北)(自)(身)(的)(问)(题)(。包)(括)(,比)(如)(说)(思)(想)(观)(念)(、发)(展)(方)(式)(、经)(济)(结)(构)(、体)(制)(机)(制)(这)(些)(相)(对)(落)(后)(的)(个)(性)(化)(的)(问)(题)(。所)(以)(,习)(总)(书)(记)(当)(时)(用)(了)(两)(个)(归)(根)(结)(底)(,他)(说)(:东)(北)(目)(前)(的)(矛)(盾)(和)(问)(题)(,归)(根)(结)(底)(是)(体)(制)(机)(制)(问)(题)(,是)(产)(业)(结)(构)(、经)(济)(结)(构)(问)(题)(;第)(二)(个)(归)(根)(结)(底)(,这)(些)(问)(题)(归)(根)(结)(底)(要)(靠)(深)(化)(改)(革)(来)(予)(以)(解)(决)(。
  第)(三)(个)(层)(面)(,从)(问)(题)(分)(析)(的)(范)(畴)(来)(看)(。我)(们)(也)(做)(了)(一)(个)(分)(析)(,目)(前)(东)(北)(出)(现)(这)(些)(问)(题)(,除)(了)(东)(北)(之)(外)(,与)(东)(北)(产)(业)(结)(构)(、企)(业)(结)(构)(、产)(品)(结)(构)(、所)(有)(制)(结)(构)(类)(似)(的)(地)(区)(,同)(样)(出)(现)(了)(一)(样)(的)(问)(题)(。所)(以)(,这)(个)(不)(单)(纯)(是)(东)(北)(行)(政)(区)(的)(问)(题)(,已)(经)(演)(变)(成)(单)(一)(结)(构)(问)(题)(、类)(型)(区)(普)(遍)(面)(临)(的)(一)(种)(问)(题)(。当)(然)(,党)(中)(央)(、国)(务)(院)(对)(于)(东)(北)(目)(前)(出)(现)(这)(些)(问)(题)(高)(度)(重)(视)(,大)(家)(也)(都)(看)(到)(,今)(年)(以)(来)(,习)(总)(书)(记)(、克)(强)(总)(理)(都)(到)(东)(北)(视)(察)(,而)(且)(作)(出)(一)(系)(列)(的)(重)(要)(指)(示)(,包)(括)(刚)(才)(几)(位)(市)(长)(都)(谈)(到)(了)(,总)(书)(记)(7月)(份)(在)(东)(北)(调)(研)(的)(时)(候)(,明)(确)(指)(出)(,要)(按)(照)(“四)(个)(着)(力)(”的)(指)(导)(思)(想)(,统)(筹)(解)(决)(东)(北)(的)(问)(题)(,统)(筹)(推)(进)(东)(北)(的)(全)(面)(振)(兴)(。目)(前)(,应)(该)(说)(各)(方)(面)(,包)(括)(发)(改)(委)(,正)(在)(按)(照)(领)(导)(的)(指)(示)(,积)(极)(推)(动)(相)(关)(工)(作)(,应)(该)(说)(这)(些)(工)(作)(的)(奠)(定)(,为)(有)(序)(解)(决)(东)(北)(目)(前)(存)(在)(这)(些)(问)(题)(也)(创)(造)(了)(良)(好)(的)(条)(件)(。同)(时)(,有)(一)(点)(需)(要)(大)(家)(关)(注)(,就)(是)(东)(北)(目)(前)(除)(了)(问)(题)(之)(外)(,还)(有)(一)(些)(值)(得)(关)(注)(的)(亮)(点)(。比)(如)(说)(,像)(农)(业)(、服)(务)(业)(、城)(乡)(居)(民)(收)(入)(、就)(业)(形)(势)(,还)(是)(基)(本)(稳)(定)(的)(。这)(些)(基)(本)(稳)(定)(,保)(持)(了)(东)(北)(经)(济)(社)(会)(发)(展)(的)(基)(本)(面)(总)(体)(来)(看)(也)(是)(稳)(定)(的)(。所)(以)(,我)(觉)(得)(面)(临)(问)(题)(,既)(不)(能)(畏)(之)(如)(虎)(,也)(不)(能)(视)(之)(无)(物)(,应)(该)(冷)(静)(分)(析)(,化)(解)(危)(机)(,着)(力)(改)(善)(发)(展)(动)(力)(和)(发)(展)(水)(平)(。
  二)(、如)(何)(破)(解)(这)(个)(问)(题)(,从)(三)(个)(层)(面)(来)(展)(开)(:
  第)(一)(个)(问)(题)(,围)(绕)(严)(峻)(的)(形)(势)(,唯)(有)(坚)(持)(深)(化)(改)(革)(、全)(力)(构)(建)(新)(体)(制)(,东)(北)(地)(区)(才)(有)(望)(轻)(装)(前)(行)(。改)(革)(的)(重)(要)(性)(毋)(庸)(置)(疑)(,目)(前)(东)(北)(正)(在)(按)(照)(中)(央)(的)(部)(署)(,大)(力)(推)(进)(重)(点)(领)(域)(的)(改)(革)(。但)(是)(,我)(个)(人)(觉)(得)(,改)(革)(的)(成)(功)(与)(否)(,真)(正)(能)(够)(成)(功)(,取)(决)(于)(三)(个)(条)(件)(:第)(一)(个)(条)(件)(,就)(是)(是)(否)(真)(正)(建)(立)(了)(壮)(士)(断)(腕)(的)(信)(心)(和)(勇)(气)(。东)(北)(受)(计)(划)(经)(济)(影)(响)(最)(深)(,目)(前)(计)(划)(经)(济)(影)(响)(根)(深)(蒂)(固)(,包)(括)(我)(们)(工)(作)(层)(面)(和)(各)(方)(面)(接)(触)(到)(的)(,咱)(们)(对)(于)(传)(统)(旧)(有)(机)(制)(,包)(括)(辉)(煌)(历)(史)(的)(留)(恋)(,都)(能)(够)(随)(处)(可)(见)(。所)(以)(,能)(否)(尽)(快)(的)(摒)(弃)(这)(种)(计)(划)(经)(济)(体)(制)(的)(惯)(性)(思)(维)(,摆)(脱)(等)(靠)(要)(的)(传)(统)(观)(念)(,能)(否)(提)(振)(起)(改)(创)(的)(精)(气)(神)(,是)(改)(革)(成)(败)(的)(首)(要)(关)(键)(;第)(二)(个)(条)(件)(,能)(否)(选)(择)(一)(条)(科)(学)(合)(理)(的)(方)(法)(路)(径)(。改)(革)(是)(一)(个)(艰)(巨)(复)(杂)(的)(系)(统)(工)(程)(,可)(能)(一)(方)(面)(要)(注)(重)(完)(善)(顶)(层)(设)(计)(,对)(改)(革)(任)(务)(进)(行)(普)(通)(谋)(划)(和)(整)(体)(布)(局)(;另)(外)(,更)(要)(鼓)(励)(基)(层)(的)(实)(践)(,一)(定)(要)(充)(分)(发)(挥)(基)(层)(政)(府)(和)(广)(大)(群)(众)(这)(种)(自)(主)(创)(新)(的)(能)(力)(。同)(时)(,改)(革)(也)(要)(坚)(持)(目)(标)(导)(向)(,要)(围)(绕)(改)(革)(的)(核)(心)(目)(标)(不)(动)(摇)(,围)(绕)(核)(心)(目)(标)(是)(确)(定)(时)(间)(表)(、路)(线)(图)(和)(责)(任)(书)(,同)(时)(更)(要)(坚)(持)(问)(题)(导)(向)(,围)(绕)(一)(个)(问)(题)(,一)(个)(问)(题)(解)(决)(,围)(绕)(关)(键)(环)(节)(,有)(的)(放)(矢)(,精)(准)(发)(力)(;第)(三)(个)(条)(件)(,是)(否)(采)(取)(了)(严)(谨)(务)(实)(的)(具)(体)(行)(动)(。改)(革)(不)(能)(光)(用)(嘴)(说)(,也)(不)(能)(停)(留)(在)(文)(件)(和)(文)(字)(字)(面)(的)(层)(面)(。当)(然)(,改)(革)(需)(要)(谋)(于)(高)(远)(,毕)(其)(功)(于)(一)(役)(的)(勇)(气)(。但)(是)(,我)(们)(更)(需)(要)(、更)(欣)(赏)(脚)(踏)(实)(地)(、精)(雕)(细)(磨)(,目)(前)(东)(北)(的)(改)(革)(,要)(一)(步)(一)(个)(脚)(印)(、一)(个)(一)(个)(台)(阶)(,积)(小)(胜)(于)(大)(胜)(,积)(跬)(步)(以)(至)(千)(里)(。
  第)(二)(个)(问)(题)(,面)(临)(创)(新)(创)(业)(,积)(极)(培)(育)(经)(济)(增)(长)(新)(动)(力)(,东)(北)(地)(区)(才)(有)(望)(化)(茧)(成)(蝶)(,抓)(创)(新)(就)(是)(抓)(发)(展)(,谋)(创)(新)(就)(是)(谋)(未)(来)(。第)(一)(个)(,要)(充)(分)(发)(挥)(人)(在)(创)(新)(创)(业)(中)(的)(核)(心)(作)(用)(。目)(前)(,东)(北)(人)(才)(外)(流)(,社)(会)(普)(遍)(关)(注)(。那)(么)(,能)(不)(能)(通)(过)(小)(环)(境)(营)(造)(去)(创)(造)(一)(种)(留)(住)(人)(、吸)(引)(人)(、使)(用)(人)(的)(制)(度)(环)(境)(,同)(时)(能)(否)(通)(过)(打)(造)(东)(北)(的)(区)(域)(性)(金)(融)(中)(心)(,用)(钱)(来)(办)(事)(,把)(传)(统)(的)(孔)(雀)(东)(南)(各)(自)(飞)(形)(势)(加)(以)(转)(变)(;第)(二)(个)(,发)(挥)(东)(北)(新)(平)(台)(在)(创)(新)(创)(业)(中)(的)(引)(擎)(作)(用)(。包)(括)(国)(家)(综)(合)(配)(套)(改)(革)(试)(验)(区)(等)(平)(台)(的)(作)(用)(,把)(创)(新)(要)(素)(聚)(集)(到)(一)(起)(,形)(成)(新)(的)(活)(力)(;第)(三)(个)(,发)(挥)(企)(业)(的)(创)(新)(主)(体)(作)(用)(。放)(手)(让)(企)(业)(去)(创)(新)(。
  第)(三)(个)(问)(题)(,面)(对)(严)(峻)(的)(形)(势)(,唯)(有)(坚)(持)(扩)(大)(开)(放)(,全)(力)(打)(造)(经)(济)(增)(长)(新)(平)(台)(,东)(北)(地)(区)(才)(有)(望)(迸)(发)(新)(的)(活)(力)(。第)(一)(个)(,积)(极)(培)(育)(对)(外)(开)(放)(平)(台)(。包)(括)(国)(家)(级)(新)(区)(,目)(前)(我)(们)(还)(在)(筹)(划)(新)(的)(新)(区)(,包)(括)(沈)(阳)(中)(德)(高)(端)(制)(造)(业)(园)(区)(。包)(括)(中)(韩)(、中)(日)(韩)(的)(合)(作)(平)(台)(;第)(二)(个)(,要)(务)(使)(的)(加)(强)(战)(略)(对)(接)(。把)(东)(北)(的)(老)(工)(业)(基)(地)(振)(兴)(战)(略)(和)(俄)(罗)(斯)(的)(远)(东)(开)(发)(战)(略)(、“一)(带)(一)(路)(”战)(略)(和)(经)(济)(协)(同)(发)(展)(战)(略)(统)(一)(协)(调)(,通)(过)(战)(略)(合)(作)(寻)(找)(新)(的)(增)(长)(点)(,寻)(找)(新)(的)(发)(展)(奇)(迹)(。
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